What is Human Sexuality?


Misogyny (originates from the Greek – “hatred” and - “woman”) is hatred in relation to women, antifeminism. Mysogynist is a person, who hates women. Misogyny can be revealed in the form of discrimination on the basis of sex, humiliation of women, violence over women or sexual objectivation of women. Misogyny was found in many mythological, religious and philosophical systems. From the point of view of the feminist theory, misogyny is generated by the patriarchal social structures and at the same time supports their existence.
The truth is that many mysogynists are in the monogamous relations with women, but they always feel superiority over them; they despise women and test a strong envy to progresses and achievements of a definite woman or women as a gender. It creates barriers for really close relations between men and women. The discrimination of women by the other women is also a widely spread type of misogyny. The female misogyny is being discussed by feminists for a long time. Only in the society of patriarchal women with classical views, and in feminist society where women defend equality, misogyny is the phenomenon, stable and almost identical for both classes.
The generation M is the generation of people, born after 1980. They met the new millennium at a young age. The generation M also corresponds to the so-called “boomerang generation”, or “Peter Pan’s generation”, because its representatives are inclined to delay the transition to the adult life than their contemporaries in the previous generations, and also to live longer in the parents’ houses. The sociologist Kathleen Shapitus called this phenomenon “a crowded nest syndrome”. The main reasons of this tendency include international financial crisis, the increase of the real estate prices and unemployment. Moreover, the generation M was formed at the time when the Internet caused a global revolution in the traditional mass media. In comparison with the previous generations, the generation M had the availability of the information, music and cinema. All these characteristic features of the generation M also influenced the development of relationships with women and attitude towards them.
A great interest, which is shown today to the expanded concept of a gender as opening of a new informative and theoretical prospect, specifies that there was the reconsideration of understanding of a social organization of a ratio of genders. Moreover, the ratio of genders is now perceived as a form of a social organization. The introduction of gender gave the chance to revise the opposition called into question between women and men and at the same time a serious attitude to this opposition as to the hierarchy mechanism in social, cultural and political reality. This category allowed to describe the phenomenon of a ratio of power between the sexes without the addressing the rule of the female experience or present oppression of women.
The gender theory singled out the phenomenon of sexism. Sexism is ideology and practice of the discrimination of people by the gender. Sexism is connected with the phenomenon of racism. Sexism as ideology is based on the stereotypic models of gender roles. It puts the roles, abilities, interests and models of human behaviour, depending on their gender. Within the frameworks of the feministic theory, sexism is most often considered as patriarchy manifestation that is as discrimination of women by men. Sexism is the manifestation of patriarchy that is such society organization at which men as a social group possess the power over women as a social group. As well as the other types of discrimination, sexism is represented by the disfranchisement of the group, which is deprived of power - that is women. Feminism and the struggle for the equality - emancipation - are the main opponent of sexism.
The important place among the manifestations of sexism is taken by the labor discrimination of women. It can be expressed in a vertical segregation (when a woman meets the artificial obstacles for career growth), a horizontal segregation (formal or informal deprivation of access to certain highly paid professions and professional spheres), and lower compensation of women in comparison with men. The sexism in mass media, in particular, in advertising, is connected with a sexual objectivization of women. Sexism is the cause of the gender violence: men rape women, commit acts of physical and emotional abuse because consider women as the lowest beings and believe in the right of control over them. Sexual objectivization is a perception of the other person or the attitude towards him as exclusive as to the tool (object) for own sexual satisfaction. A sexual object is the person who is perceived as the object for the achievement of sexual pleasure. The concept of a sexual objectivization and especially objectivization of women is an important component of the feministic theory and the psychological theories based on feminism. The objectivization of women plays an important role in the maintenance of a gender inequality. The concept of a sexual objectivization is also an important subject in discussions about sexual ethics and philosophy of sex.
The violence over women or gender violence is the individual or collective violent acts made mainly or only concerning women. As well as crimes caused by hatred, such violence is directed at a definite group, and its main motive is gender accessory of a victim. Violence concerning women is made on the basis of a sexual sign which causes or can cause physical, sexual or psychological damage or sufferings to women, and also threats of commission of such acts, coercion or any imprisonment in public or private life.
According to the data of the World Health Organization, the highest risk of violence over women is exposed from the side of people with whom they are connected by close relations; first of all, they are intimate partners. Domestic violence over women as a whole can be estimated by the following example: from 40 to 70% of murders of women are made by their husbands or partners. Domestic violence can take the form of not only physical, but also psychological and verbal violence.
Women are extremely vulnerable to abusive treatment by their partners in societies, which embrace social inequalities, especially relating to sex roles and a rigid place of a woman in a society. These societies support a man’s alleged right to inflict violent behaviour on his intimate partner, coupled with loose sanctions towards such behaviours in society.
In modern life, women are presented in the Internet, music videos and advertisements, both as a goal and the means. The advertisement became the fact and the factor of everyday life. Thus, a woman became “a standing point” for the promotion of her sexuality. Moreover, the romanticism of relationship was substituted with the sexual context of working relationship. Many products of mass media are overwhelmed with expression of explicit feminine sexuality to the point of bordering with pornography. This approach encourages people not only perceive sex as a commodity, but also engraves stereotypes of a woman being a sex object. Ultimately, this perception makes a solid contribution towards hatred against women.
There are a lot of types of Internet content, including porn websites and games, aimed to humiliate the dignity of women and provoke the violent behaviour of men both in family and society. Thus, the computer games like Grand Theft Auto provoke violence from the side of men. Such games educate teenagers and young men to be rude and aggressive, especially towards women.
Moreover, music videos represent a woman as a sexual object, always ready to tempt men. Women in such videos are independent and rather experienced in men’s work. They can easily solve the technical car problems and confidently press the gas pedal of their luxurious Pontiac GTO by the bronze silk leg. This image evokes hatred of men; their sexuality, much emphasized everywhere, provokes men for the violent behaviour. Thus, a woman represents the American dream, reveals herself from a new side and becomes universality.

About the author:
Helga Marselos, the blogger and a writer at https://topwritingservice.com/

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